The four astrological elements are also considered as a direct equivalent to Hippocrates' personality types (sanguine = air; choleric = fire; melancholic = earth; phlegmatic = water).A modern approach looks at elements as "the energy substance of experience" Classification according to element has gained such importance, that some astrologers start their interpretation of a natal chart, by studying the balance of elements shown by the position of planets and angles They are occasionally referred to as crosses because each modality forms a cross when drawn across the zodiac.The following table enumerates the twelve divisions of celestial longitude, with the Latin names (still widely used) and the English translation (gloss).The longitude intervals, being a mathematical division, are closed for the first endpoint (a) and open for the second (b) — for instance, 30° of longitude is the first point of Taurus, not part of Aries.Various approaches to measuring and dividing the sky are currently used by differing systems of astrology, although the tradition of the Zodiac's names and symbols remain consistent.Western astrology measures from Equinox and Solstice points (points relating to equal, longest and shortest days of the tropical year), while Jyotiṣa or Vedic astrology measures along the equatorial plane (sidereal year).Christian astrology relates the three qualities to the three aspects of God in the trinity The combination of element and modality provides a basic sign characterization.For instance, Capricorn is a cardinal earth sign, meaning that it is associated with action (cardinal modality) in the material world (earth element).
Each planet is represented by a glyph next to its longitude within the sign.
Psychologically-oriented astrologers often believe that Uranus is the ruler or co-ruler of Aquarius instead of Saturn; Neptune is the ruler or co-ruler of Pisces instead of Jupiter, and that Pluto is the ruler or co-ruler of Scorpio instead of Mars.
Some astrologers believe that the planetoid Chiron may be the ruler of Virgo, while other group of modern astrologers claim that Ceres is the ruler of Taurus instead.
While Western astrology is essentially a product of Greco-Roman culture, some of its more basic concepts originated in Babylonia.
Isolated references to celestial "signs" in Sumerian sources are insufficient to speak of a Sumerian zodiac.