It moved steadily westward from the 1630s to the 1880s (with occasional movements north into Maine and Vermont, south into Florida, and east from California into Nevada).
Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the "frontier line" as a settlement density of two people per square mile.
These areas remained primarily in subsistence agriculture, and as a result by the 1760s these societies were highly egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized.
Likewise, the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York, but they did not push westward.
Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St.
Lawrence River, building communities that remained stable for long stretches; they did not simply jump west the way the British did.