Adaptation is genetically based and so leads to phenotypic changes that accumulate over time;  Speciation (species formation) evolves through reproductive isolation and (genetic) divergence of populations;  Genetic changes through natural selection lead to new species and eventually new taxa .
The evolution of a species is linked to the environment.
This formed the foundation of the neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory.
Very simply, there are five basic principles to this theory:  Variation has a genetic origin (i.e.
Biologists included principles from genetics in evolutionary theory during the 1920s and 1930s.
Between the mid-1930s and mid 1940s geneticists, systematists and palaeontologists collaborated to create a united approach to evolution, the "Modern Synthesis".
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methods rely on characteristic faunal and geological patterns to bracket the period when the fossil existed.
At the onset of the 20th century, most scientists had accepted the great antiquity of the earth, the theory of evolution and that humanity had evolved from an ape ancestor, but by 1908 the fossil evidence of early man was scarce.