An unstable nucleus will decompose spontaneously, or decay, into a more stable configuration but will do so only in a few specific ways by emitting certain Rates of radioactive transitions).The product of a radioactive decay process—called the daughter of the parent isotope—may itself be unstable, in which case it, too, will decay.(Alternatively to gamma emission, an excited nucleus may transform to a lower energy state by ejecting an electron from the cloud surrounding the nucleus.This orbital electron ejection is known as second).Beta radioactivity also produces the neutrino and antineutrino, particles that have no charge and very little mass, symbolized by ν and of the parent nucleus.Neutrons and protons are, of course, the basic building blocks of complex nuclei, having approximately unit mass on the atomic scale and having zero charge or unit positive charge, respectively. It is rapidly captured by nuclei in matter; otherwise, in free space it will undergo beta-minus decay to a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino with a half-life of 12.8 minutes.
In alpha decay, an energetic helium ion (alpha particle) is ejected, leaving a daughter nucleus of atomic number two less than the parent and of atomic mass number four less than the parent.
The process continues until a stable nuclide has been formed.positron, is the antiparticle of the electron; when brought together, two such particles will mutually annihilate each other.
Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiations such as radio waves, light, and X-rays.
The slanted arrows symbolize the electron-capture decay with labels giving the percentage of decay directly to ground state (89.7 percent) and the percentage of EC decay going via the excited state (10.3 percent).
The boldface numbers following the percentages are so-called log is necessarily a calculated value because there is no general practical means of measuring the neutrino energies accompanying EC decay.