These booming locales have been of concern to the government because of their close proximity to Lake Managua.
The construction of a new sewer system and the redirecting of waste water to a new water treatment plant at Las Mercedes in Eastern Managua in May 2009 relieved old concerns over water pollution and native wildlife, and brought some residents closer to the old city center and the rest of the mainland.
More than 300,000 Nicaraguans returned from abroad bringing their expertise and needed capital.
Located on the southwestern shore of Lake Managua, it is Nicaragua's largest city, with an estimated population in 2016 of 1,042,641 within the city limits Previously, the capital alternated between the cities of León and Granada.
To add insult to injury, corruption within the Somoza regime which allocated part of the relief funds hindered the reconstruction of the city's center which remains somewhat isolated from the rest of the capital.
The Nicaraguan Revolution of 1979 to overthrow the Somoza regime and the 11-year-long Contra War of the 1980s further devastated the city and its economy.
The 1972 Nicaragua earthquake and years of civil war in the 1980s severely disrupted and stunted Managua's growth.
It was not until the mid-1990s that Managua began to see a resurgence.