Plant materials were collected or grown locally, and more exotic medicines, including spices like black pepper (Piper nigrum L., Piperaceae) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt., Myristicaceae), became accessible through early land and, later, sea trade routes [8, 9].
Today, this tradition of incorporating exotics into the CAM pharmacopoeia continues throughout Europe, and examples of popular nonnative herbal CAM products include those containing arnica (Arnica montana L., Asteraceae) , cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae) , ginseng (Panax ginseng C. Mey., Araliaceae) , and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae) , among others.
We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market.
However, herb-drug interactions regarding these popular products are still poorly understood in most cases and present a dilemma for the European allopathic medical community (e.g., see  for a patient case study on self-medication with valerian and passionflower in addition to the prescribed anxiolytic drug, lorazepam).
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In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades.
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