The Holland cloth, and all other medieval linens gave the test [i.e.
tested positive] for vanillin wherever lignin could be observed on growth nodes.
The disappearance of all traces of vanillin from the lignin in the shroud indicates a much older age than the radiocarbon laboratories reported." "The fire of 1532 could not have greatly affected the vanillin content of lignin in all parts of the shroud equally. therefore, the unscorched parts of the folded cloth could not have become very hot." "The cloth's center would not have heated at all in the time available.
The rapid change in color from black to white at the margins of the scorches illustrates this fact." "Different amounts of vanillin would have been lost in different areas.
Even allowing for errors in the measurements and assumptions about storage conditions, the cloth is unlikely to be as young as 840 years." "A gum/dye/mordant [(for affixing dye)] coating is easy to observe on... No other part of the shroud shows such a coating." "The radiocarbon sample had been dyed. Effects of fires and biofractionation of carbon isotopes on results of radiocarbon dating of old textiles: the Shroud of Turin. Actes du III Symposium Scientifique International du CIELT, Nice, France.
Dyeing was probably done intentionally on pristine replacement material to match the color of the older, sepia-colored cloth." "The dye found on the radiocarbon sample was not used in Europe before about 1291 AD and was not common until more than 100 years later." "Specifically, the color and distribution of the coating implies that repairs were made at an unknown time with foreign linen dyed to match the older original material." "The consequence of this conclusion is that the radiocarbon sample was not representative of the original cloth." "The combined evidence from chemical kinetics, analytical chemistry, cotton content, and pyrolysis-mass-spectrometry proves that the material from the radiocarbon area of the shroud is significantly different from that of the main cloth. John Jackson and Propp in 1998, which replicated the famous Fire of 1532, demonstrated that the fire added carbon isotopes to the linen. Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 109-121. They comprise three tests; two chemical and one mechanical.
The finer weave of 3-over-1 herringbone is consistent with the New Testament statement that the "sindon" (or shroud) was purchased by Joseph of Arimathea, who was a wealthy man.
In 1532, there was a fire in the church in Chambery, France, where the Shroud was being kept.
1988 CARBON-14 TEST REFUTED The 1988 Carbon-14 tests done at Oxford, Zurich and Arizona Labs used pieces of the same sample cut from a corner (lower left of above pictures).1.Read our guide to learn what MLA is and how to make properly formatted citations.Visual guides are also included to help you locate information needed for citations. Our comprehensive guide will teach you how to format your paper and create accurate citations.Here are some excerpts: "Pyrolysis-mass-spectrometry results from the sample area coupled with microscopic and microchemical observations prove that the radiocarbon sample was not part of the original cloth of the Shroud of Turin.The radiocarbon date was thus not valid for determining the true age of the shroud." "As part of the Shroud of Turin research project (STURP), I took 32 adhesive-tape samples from all areas of the shroud and associated textiles in 1978." "It enabled direct chemical testing on recovered linen fibers and particulates".